By Martin R. S. McCoustra (auth.), David L. Andrews, Andrey A. Demidov (eds.)
In the hot variation the editors have preserved the elemental notion and constitution, with the involvement of a few new authors - all well-known specialists in laser spectroscopy. each one bankruptcy addresses a distinct approach, offering a assessment and research of the present prestige, and reporting a number of the most up-to-date achievements. With the foremost formulation and strategies precise in lots of sections, this article represents a potential guide of its topic. it will likely be a worthwhile device either for experts to maintain abreast of advancements and for rookies to the sphere wanting an obtainable creation to express tools of laser spectroscopy - and in addition as a source for basic references.
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Extra info for An Introduction to Laser Spectroscopy: Second Edition
As is obvious from a comparison of the expressions given above for the photocurrent generated in a photovoltaic device and for the anode current in a PMT, for similar quantum efficiencies the photovoltaic device will produce G times less current. External electronic amplification, with its associated problems of additional noise, is then required to raise the output of the photovoltaic device to a measurable level. However, this lessened sensitivity does mean that such devices can be operated at much higher incident optical powers than a PMT.
Constructed as a multiple quantum well device from wide bandgap III-V materials, laser action is engineered to occur between energy levels located entirely within the conduction band of the semiconductor. The dimensions of the quantum wells within the device determine the energy levels themselves. LID region. Recent devices have promised room temperature operation at similar powers or greater. This combination of mature and wellunderstood semiconductor technology with some unique laser device physics is on the threshold of revolution ising IR laser spectroscopy.
The limiting current MARTIN R. S. McCOUSTRA 28 naturally depends on the type of photocathode material as demonstrated in Table 4, and is dependent on the area of the material illuminated. Illuminating a small area of a photocathode with an intense light source will therefore result in the generation of the limiting current, as opposed to that 14 Stage 12 Stage 10 Stage 1000 1500 2000 Applied Voltage / V 2500 Figure 18. The variation of photomultiplier gain, G, with applied voltage, illustrating the effect of the number of dynode stages.