By Paul A. Horgen, Alan Castle (auth.), Professor Dr. Frank Kempken (eds.)
During this quantity the relevance of fungi for agriculture is mentioned in 4 sections. the 1st one 'Food and Fodder creation' matters the applying and power of mushrooms, straw enrichment, and nutrients or crop spoilage. the subsequent part 'Mycotoxins and detoxing' bargains with the biosynthesis of mycotoxins and using fungi in organopollutant degradation. a wide part entitled 'Disease keep an eye on, Diagnostic, and administration' covers a variety of features of organic keep watch over (fungi, bugs, and weeds), diagnostics with emphasis at the instance of Magnaporthegrisea, and ailment administration with specialise in the real fungal pathogens Phoma, Fusarium, rusts and powdery mould. The final part 'Update on Host-Parasite Interactions' discusses sign transduction, avirulence determinants, phytotoxins, mobilephone wall degradation, and the coevolution of pathogenic fungi and grass hosts.
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Extra info for Agricultural Applications
1990), thereby enhancing structural rigidity and also limiting the availability of structural carbohydrates to rumen digestion. Phenolic monomers inhibit the rumen microorganisms (Hartley and Akin 1989) and are negatively correlated to fiber digestibility (Bohn and Fales 1989). To increase the availability of structural carbohydrates for animal utilization, it is important to break down the phenolic acids between the wall components. The fungal rem oval of the cell wall bound phenolic acids may be either initiated by breaking the phenolic bridges between lignin and structural carbohydrates or by directly attacking the phenolic components.
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 19 20 22 22 22 22 22 22 24 24 24 25 26 27 29 30 30 31 31 32 32 33 34 35 I. Introduction Straw (wheat, barley, oat, rye, rice) represents the main agricnltural crop residue in the world and botanically belongs to the Graminae family. Cereal straws are lignocelullosic material rich in energy, low in crude protein and poor in palatability. One characteristic of straw is that it mainly consists of 60-70% carbohydrates (Jackson 1977).
During screening of basidiomycetes for wheat straw delignification, considerable lignin degradation with a limited effect on cellulose was attained with Pleurotus eryngii. Among lignolytic enzymes produced by white-rot fungi only lignin peroxidase can directly oxidize nonphenolic lignin models, whereas Mn-dependent peroxidase and laccase were detected und er SSF conditions; however, the high laccase and aryl-alcohol oxidase found in Pleurotus are supposed to degrade mainly phenolic units. No lignin peroxidase was detected under SSF conditions, but high laccase and aryl-alcohol oxidase were found in Pleurotus eryngii (Martinez et al.