By Ronald Deibert,John Palfrey,Rafal Rohozinski, et al.MIT Press|MIT Press||Adult NonfictionComputer TechnologyLanguage(s): EnglishOn sale date: 18.01.2013Street date: 28.02.2014
Reports on a brand new iteration of net controls that identify a brand new normative terrain during which surveillance and censorship are regimen.
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Extra resources for Access Controlled. The Shaping of Power, Rights, and Rule in Cyberspace
Independent media are stifled, journalists intimidated, and opposition parties and civil society groups harassed and subject to a variety of suffocating regulations. And yet, in spite of this increasingly constrained environment, the Internet remains accessible and relatively free from filtering. The ONI has tested extensively through the CIS region, far deeper and more regularly in fact than in any other region in the world. To date we have documented traditional “Chinese-style” Internet filtering—the deliberate and static blocking of Internet content and services by state sanction—only in Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan.
And these figures may be low. Russian cyberspace also embraces the global Russian diaspora that, through successive waves of emigration, is estimated at above 27 million worldwide. Many Russian émigrés reside in developed countries, but tend to live online in the RUNET. Statistics to back this claim are methodologically problematic, but anecdotal evidence suggests that this is the case. ru, for example, boasts over 50 million user accounts, suggesting that the number of inhabitants in Russia cyberspace may be significantly above the 57 million users resident in the CIS.
These next-generation techniques employ the use of legal regulations to supplement or legitimize technical filtering measures, extralegal or covert practices, including offensive methods, and the outsourcing or privatizing of controls to “third parties,” to restrict what type of information can be posted, hosted, accessed, or communicated online. Examples of next-generation techniques include the infiltration and exploitation of computer systems by targeted viruses and the employment of distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks, surveillance at key choke points of the Internet’s infrastructure, legal takedown notices, stifling terms-of-usage policies, and national information-shaping strategies, all of which are highlighted in one way or another in the chapters that follow.