By Frederick E. Hoxie
"This is a vital e-book. within the latter 19th century, various and influential components in white the United States mixed forces to settle the 'Indian query' via assimilation. . . . the implications have been the primarily treaty-breaking Dawes Act of 1887, comparable laws, and doubtful courtroom judgements. Schoolteachers and missionaries have been dispatched to the reservations en masse. Eventual 'citizenship' with out practical rights used to be given local americans; the Indians misplaced two-thirds of reservation land because it had existed ahead of the assimilationist crusade. . . . With perception and talent that pass way past craft, Hoxie has admirably outlined concerns and factors, positioned economic/political/social interplay into cogent viewpoint, introduced quite a few Anglo and Indian contributors and firms to lifestyles, and set forth vital lessons."-Choice. "This major research of Indian-white family in the course of a fancy time in nationwide politics merits shut attention."-American Indian Quarterly. "Important and intellectually tough . . . This quantity is going a ways to fill a wide hole within the heritage of usa Indian policy."-Journal of yank background. Frederick E. Hoxie is director of the D'Arcy McNickle middle for the historical past of the yankee Indian on the Newberry Library. He coedited (with Joan Mark) E. Jane Gay's With the Nez Perc?s: Alice Fletcher within the box, 1889-92 (Nebraska 1981).
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Extra info for A Final Promise: The Campaign to Assimilate the Indians, 1880-1920
Dawes had no personal ideology that overrode his loyalty to the party. And for him, the party’s principles were constant: a strong central government, racial equality, sound money, and a high tariff. While his stalwart allegiances continued to serve him well, they also made Dawes increasingly vulnerable to a group of younger Republicans who became active during the 1870s. This new group (often called “halfbreeds” by their stalwart opponents) contained men from a number of ideological camps; they shared only a common antipathy to the party’s aging leadership.
That tribe had been moved from its traditional home in the northern plains to a “consolidated” reservation in Indian Territory. The Indians hated the relocation; there they found food supplies low and medical care unavailable. And so they escaped, forcing the army to hunt them down and return them to their reservation. After a decade of effort, the government seemed incapable of producing anything but more bloody headlines. The outcry surrounding the Fort Robinson tragedy subsided in a few weeks.
And the Boston Daily Advertiser, edited by a member of the Boston Indian Citizenship Committee, was aggressively anti-Catholic. 22 Total assimilation was a goal that combined concern for native suffering with faith in the promise of America. Once the tribes were brought into “civilized” society there would be no reason for them to “usurp” vast tracts of “underdeveloped” land. And membership in a booming nation would be ample compensation for the dispossession they had suffered. But most important, the extension of citizenship and other symbols of membership in American society would reafﬁrm the power of the nation’s institutions to mold all people to a common standard.